zaterdag 5 oktober 2013

supermassive black hole puzzles scientists

Most massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres, and the masses of the black holes are believed to correlate with properties of the host-galaxy bulge component. Several explanations have been proposed for the existence of these locally established empirical relationships, including the non-causal, statistical process of galaxy–galaxy merging, direct feedback between the black hole and its host galaxy, and galaxy–galaxy merging and the subsequent violent relaxation and dissipation. The empirical scaling relations are therefore important for distinguishing between various theoretical models of galaxy evolution, and they furthermore form the basis for all black-hole mass measurements at large distances. Observations have shown that the mass of the black hole is typically 0.1 per cent of the mass of the stellar bulge of the galaxy. Until now, the galaxy with the largest known fraction of its mass in its central black hole (11 per cent) was the small galaxy NGC 4486B1. Here we report observations of the stellar kinematics of NGC 1277, which is a compact, lenticular galaxy with a mass of 1.2 × 1011 solar masses. From the data, we determine that the mass of the central black hole is 1.7 × 1010 solar masses, or 59 per cent of its bulge mass. We also show observations of five other compact galaxies that have properties similar to NGC 1277 and therefore may also contain over-massive black holes. It is not yet known if these galaxies represent a tail of a distribution, or if disk-dominated galaxies fail to follow the usual black-hole mass scaling relations.

Monster of the milkyway

Black Holes: Are They Fountains of Creation?


For decades, physicists have been trying to reconcile two fundamental theories of physics: quantum field theory and general relativity. Quantum field theory works perfectly well for predicting the dynamics of subatomic particles, but must ignore gravity in order to do so. Conversely, general relativity can be used to determine the dynamics of planetary bodies, but in turn must ignore the conclusions of quantum mechanics. We do not have a unified theory that can bridge the gap between the microcosmic and the macrocosmic. But a Swiss physicist named Nassim Haramein claims to have found one, and says that his unified field theory has lead him to an ancient wisdom: All is One
Right, so what does that actually mean? We often hear that from sages and saints, but who can make sense of it? What is that One? According to Haramein, it’s literally a singularity—a  black hole.
In the early days of quantum mechanics, physicists encountered what is now known as the “vacuum catastrophe.” Using the Voyager probes, they measured the energetic density of empty space. In what became the largest disparity between theory and experiment ever recorded, these measurements produced some baffling results.
While it was believed that the energy contained in a vacuum would be very slight, near zero, the reality was quite the opposite: the vacuum density was measured to be 5.16 x 1093 gm/cm3  —a really, really big number. In fact, this number is 107 orders of magnitude larger than what was predicted by quantum theory. Because this discovery posed serious problems for the physicists, it was quietly shelved and the vacuum was subjected to a “renormalization process” that reduced the background energy to more manageable levels.
Nassim Haramein decided to take the energy measured in the vacuum seriously. Using the vacuum catastrophe density of 5.16 x 1093 gm/cm3, he calculated the density of the space contained within a single proton. This turned out to be 4.98 x 1055 gm/cm3, meaning that a proton met the conditions for a black hole. Haramein then demonstrated that measuring a proton in this way eliminated the need for a strong nuclear force.
In the standard model of quantum mechanics, gravity alone cannot account for the attraction of subatomic particles. For this reason, a new force of nature, the strong nuclear force, was proposed to account for this otherwise unexplainable attraction. In Haramein’s model, however, gravity alone is sufficient for explaining the attraction between protons; a strong nuclear force is unnecessary. Thus, while it may seem strange to think of a proton as a black hole, doing so results in simpler, more elegant quantum theory.
Haramein then formulated a scaling law, according to which objects of the universe could be graphed according to mass and radius. Photons, atoms, stars, and quasars all obeyed the condition for a black hole, falling on a single line of the graph. Further, the graph correctly predicted the presence of black holes at the center of most galaxies, though that was not known to be the case when Haramein published his findings.
All of this would be remarkable on its own, but consider the following: the mass of a black hole proton comes close to some of the higher estimates for the mass of the entire universe. Thus, according to Haramein’s calculations, every single proton in the universe contains the entire mass of the universe.
How can this be possible?
This writer does not pretend to know. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the standard measurements of the size of the universe, even those that “renormalize” the energy of the vacuum, do suggest that the universe might be contained within a black hole (Than, 2010). If the entire world we know and experience might be contained within a black hole, is it too much a stretch of the imagination to suggest that it may actually be made of black holes on a subatomic level?
The event horizon of a black hole is believed to contain all of the light and information of the universe. If Haramein’s theory is correct, all of that information could be found within the confines of a single subatomic particle—there would be, in Haramein’s words, “infinite complexity in any boundary condition.” Every galaxy, every star, every atom, and every proton would be an infinitely complex fractal representation of the one true singularity. All really would be One.
Building on his theory, Haramein has gone on to explore the effects of torsion on space-time. He believes that his discoveries could lead to devices that harness the enormous energy of the vacuum to create gravity fields, leading to both free energy and antigravity machines. Using these machines, one could theoretically travel from one point in the universe to any other, regardless of distance, by forging an Einstein-Rosen bridge (a wormhole) between the two locations.
Haramein has many detractors, some of whom claim to have “debunked” his theories. Generally, they say that his arguments are circular, that the peer-reviewers that accepted his paper aren’t reputable enough, or that he lacks the proper credentials. Personally, I have yet to encounter an effort at debunking him that was very convincing, as no one seemed to actually address Haramein’s arguments head on—they merely attack his person and make vague statements about his theory being bogus. That being said, the idea that the sun is a black hole does strain credulity, so I don’t think that their skepticism is entirely unwarranted.
One day, maybe definitive proof for Haramein’s unified field theory will surface. Until then, both Haramein and the band Soundgarden will have to wait for their vindication.

Soundgarden - Black Hole Sun

Black Sun

The Black Sun in Mesoamerican mythology has many mystical meanings, among them it is connected to the god Quetzalcoatl and his penetration in the Underworld through the west door after his diurnal passage on the sky. For the Mexicas there were two suns, the young Day Sun and the ancient Dark Sun. Some scholars regard the mythological Black Sun as the ancient female origin of all, it is both tomb and womb. This way, it is the oneness that uniformly integrates unawareness, death, and yet an expectation of fecundity.
In alchemic and Hermetic traditions, suns (Sun symbol.svg) are employed to symbolize a variety of concepts, much like the sun in astrology. Suns can correspond to gold, citrinitas, generative masculine principles, imagery of 'the king' or Apollo, the fiery spirit or sulfur,[1] the divine spark in man,[2] nobility, or incorruptibility. Recurring images of specific solar motifs can be found in the form of a "Dark" or "Black Sun", or a green lion devouring a sun.
Sol niger (black sun) can refer to the first stage of the alchemical magnum opus, the nigredo (blackening). In a text ascribed to Marsilio Ficino three suns are described: black, white, and red, corresponding to the three most used alchemical color stages. Of the sol niger he writes:
The body must be dissolved in the subtlest middle air: The body is also dissolved by its own heat and humidity; where the soul, the middle nature holds the principality in the colour of blackness all in the glass: which blackness of Nature the ancient Philosophers called the crows head, or the black sun.[3]
The black sun is used to illuminate the dissolution of the body, a blackening of matter, or putrefaction in Splendor Solis,[4] and Johann Daniel Mylius’s Philosophia Reformata.
The symbol has been used by a variety of esotericists; for example, as the official symbol of the occult group Black Order of the Theozoa. The name of the well-known Black Sun Press (a private literary press active in Paris in the 1920s and 1930s) reflects the occult interests of one of its founders, Harry Crosby, but pre-dates the emergence of the esoteric Nazi symbol.
Occasionally, and unscientifically, black dwarfs are referred to as black suns. This is not entirely unrelated to the esoteric meaning, since ariosophy alleges a burnt out sun that was the source of power of the Aryans in some mystical past (see also Karl Maria Wiligut). Others[who?] regard the Black Sun as a black hole; before the term black hole was coined in 1967, black holes (then still theoretical) were sometimes called black stars or dark stars. Still others, such as Miguel Serrano, think of the Black Sun as a wormhole. Uses of the term in science fiction and fantasy literature are influenced by a combination of the esoteric and the astronomical meaning. See Black Sun (disambiguation) for examples of the term as used in popular culture.
The term Black Sun (German Schwarze Sonne), also referred to as the Sonnenrad (the German for "Sun Wheel"), is a symbol of esoteric and occult significance. Its design is based on a sun wheel incorporated in a floor of Wewelsburg Castle during the Nazi era. Today, it may also be used in occult currents of Germanic neopaganism, and in Irminenschaft or Armanenschaft-inspired esotericism - but not necessarily in a racial or neo-Nazi context. Despite its contemporary use, the Black Sun had not been identified with the ornament in the Wewelsburg before 1991, although it had been discussed as an esoteric concept in neo-Nazi circles since the 1950s.

Felix da Housecat - Black Hole

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