zaterdag 5 oktober 2013

Binaural Beats

What Are Binaural Beats?

Binaural beats are auditory brainstem responses which originate in the superior olivary nucleus of each hemisphere. They result from the interaction of twodifferent auditory impulses, originating in opposite ears, below 1000 Hz andwhich differ in frequency between one and 30 Hz (Oster, 1973).For example, if apure tone of 400 Hz is presented to the right ear and a pure tone of 410 Hz ispresented simultaneously to the left ear, an amplitude modulated standing waveof 10 Hz, the difference between the two tones, is experienced as the two waveforms mesh in and out of phase within the superior olivary nuclei. This binauralbeat is not heard in the ordinary sense of the word (the human range of hearingis from 20-20,000 Hz). It is perceived as an auditory beat and theoretically can beused to entrain specific neural rhythms through the frequency-following response(FFR)--the tendency for cortical potentials to entrain to or resonate at thefrequency of an external stimulus. Thus, it is theoretically possible to utilize aspecific binaural-beat frequency as a consciousness management technique toentrain a specific cortical rhythm.
The "frequency-following response" effect.

The binaural-beat appears to be associated with an electroencephalographic (EEG)frequency-following response in the brain(3). Many studies have demonstrated thepresence of a frequency-following response to auditory stimuli, recorded at the vertex of the human brain (top of the head). This EEG activity was termed "frequency-followingresponse" because its period corresponds to the fundamental frequency of the stimulus(Smith, Marsh, & Brown, 1975). Binaural-beat stimulation appears to encourage accessto altered states of consciousness.
Various Uses Of Audio With Embedded Binaural Beats
Uses of audio with embedded binaural beats that are mixed with music or various pink or background sound are diverse. They range from relaxation, meditation, stress reduction,pain management, improved sleep quality, decrease in sleep requirements, super learning, enhanced creativity and intuition, remote viewing, telepathy, and out-of-bodyexperience and lucid dreaming. Audio embedded with binaural beats is often combinedwith various meditation techniques, as well as positive affirmations and visualization.

Resonant entrainment of oscillating systems
Resonant entrainment of oscillating systems is a well-understood principle within thephysical sciences. If a tuning fork designed to produce a frequency of 440 Hz is struck(causing it to oscillate) and then brought into the vicinity of another 440 Hz tuning fork,the second tuning fork will begin to oscillate. The first tuning fork is said to haveentrained the second or caused it to resonate. The physics of entrainment apply tobiosystems as well. Of interest here are the electromagnetic brain waves. Theelectrochemical activity of the brain results in the production of electromagnetic waveforms which can be objectively measured with sensitive equipment. Brain waves changefrequencies based on neural activity within the brain. Because neural activity iselectrochemical, brain function can be modified through the introduction of specificchemicals (drugs), by altering the brain’s electromagnetic environment throughinduction, or through resonant entrainment techniques
The Discovery Of Binaural Beats

Binaural beats were discovered in 1839 by a German experimenter, H. W. Dove. Thehuman ability to "hear" binaural beats appears to be the result of evolutionary adaptation. Many evolved species can detect binaural beats because of their brainstructure. The frequencies at which binaural beats can be detected change dependingupon the size of the species’ cranium. In the human, binaural beats can be detectedwhen carrier waves are below approximately 1000 Hz (Oster, 1973). Below 1000 Hz thewave length of the signal is longer than the diameter of the human skull. Thus, signalsbelow 1000 Hz curve around the skull by diffraction. The same effect can be observedwith radio wave propagation. Lower-frequency (longer wave length) radio waves (suchas AM radio) travel around the earth over and in between mountains and structures.Higher-frequency (shorter wave length) radio waves (such as FM radio, TV, andmicrowaves) travel in a straight line and can’t curve around the earth. Mountains andstructures block these high-frequency signals. Because frequencies below 1000 Hzcurve around the skull, incoming signals below 1000 Hz are heard by both ears. But dueto the distance between the ears, the brain "hears" the inputs from the ears as out of phase with each other. As the sound wave passes around the skull, each ear gets adifferent portion of the wave. It is this waveform phase difference that allows for accuratelocation of sounds below 1000 Hz(9). Audio direction finding at higher frequencies is lessaccurate than it is for frequencies below 1000 Hz. At 8000 Hz the pinna (external ear)becomes effective as an aid to localization. In summary it’s the ability of the brain todetect a waveform phase difference is what enables it to perceive binaural beats.

How It Works On The Brain

When signals of two different frequencies are presented, one to each ear, the braindetects phase differences between these signals. "Under natural circumstances adetected phase difference would provide directional information. The brain processesthis anomalous information differently when these phase differences are heard withstereo headphones or speakers. A perceptual integration of the two signals takes place,producing the sensation of a third "beat" frequency. The difference between the signalswaxes and wanes as the two different input frequencies mesh in and out of phase. As aresult of these constantly increasing and decreasing differences, an amplitude-modulated standing wave -the binaural beat- is heard. The binaural beat is perceived asa fluctuating rhythm at the frequency of the difference between the two auditory inputs.Evidence suggests that the binaural beats are generated in the brainstem’s superior olivary nucleus, the first site of contralateral integration in the auditory system (Oster,1973). Studies also suggest that the frequency-following response originates from theinferior colliculus (Smith, Marsh, & Brown, 1975)" (Owens & Atwater, 1995). This activityis conducted to the cortex where it can be recorded by scalp electrodes.

Altered States

Binaural beats can easily be heard at the low frequencies (< 30 Hz) that arecharacteristic of the EEG spectrum (Oster, 1973). This perceptual phenomenon of binaural beating and the objective measurement of the frequency-following response(Hink, Kodera, Yamada, Kaga, & Suzuki, 1980) suggest conditions which facilitate entrainment of brain waves and altered states of consciousness. There have beennumerous anecdotal reports and a growing number of research efforts reportingchanges in consciousness associated with binaural-beats. "The subjective effect of listening to binaural beats may be relaxing or stimulating, depending on the frequency of the binaural-beat stimulation" (Owens & Atwater, 1995). Binaural beats in the delta (1 to4 Hz) and theta (4 to 8 Hz) ranges have been associated with reports of relaxed,meditative, and creative states (Hiew, 1995), and used as an aid to falling asleep.Binaural beats in the alpha frequencies (8 to 12 Hz) have increased alpha brain waves(Foster, 1990) and binaural beats in the beta frequencies (typically 16 to 24 Hz) havebeen associated with reports of increased concentration or alertness (Monroe, 1985)and improved memory (Kennerly, 1994).Passively listening to binaural beats may not spontaneously propel you into an alteredstate of consciousness. One’s subjective experience in response to binaural-beatstimulation may also be influenced by a number of mediating factors. For example, thewillingness and ability of the listener to relax and focus attention may contribute tobinaural-beat effectiveness in inducing state changes. "Ultradian rhythms in the nervoussystem are characterized by periodic changes in arousal and states of consciousness(Rossi, 1986;Shannahoff-Khalsa, 1991; Webb & Dube, 1981). These naturally occurring shifts mayunderlie the anecdotal reports of fluctuations in the effectiveness of binaural beats.External factors are also thought to play roles in mediating the effects of binaural beats"(Owens & Atwater, 1995). The perception of a binaural beat is, for example, said to beheightened by the addition of white noise to the carrier signal (Oster, 1973), so whitenoise is often used as background. "Music, relaxation exercises, guided imagery, andverbal suggestion have all been used to enhance the state-changing effects of thebinaural beat" (Owens & Atwater, 1995). Other practices such as humming, toning,breathing exercises, autogenic training, and/or biofeedback can also be used to interruptthe homeostasis of resistant subjects (Tart, 1975).

Brain Waves and Consciousness

Controversies concerning the brain, mind, and consciousness have existed since theearly Greek philosophers argued about the nature of the mind-body relationship, andnone of these disputes has been resolved. Modern neurologists have located the mind inthe brain and have said that consciousness is the result of electrochemical neurologicalactivity. There are, however, growing observations to the contrary. There is noneurophysiological research which conclusively shows that the higher levels of mind(intuition, insight, creativity, imagination, understanding, thought, reasoning, intent,decision, knowing, will, spirit, or soul) are located in brain tissue (Hunt, 1995). Aresolution to the controversies surrounding the higher mind and consciousness and themind-body problem in general may need to involve an epistemological shift to includeextra-rational ways of knowing (de Quincey, 1994) and cannot be comprehended byneurochemical brain studies alone. We are in the midst of a revolution focusing on thestudy of consciousness (Owens, 1995). Penfield, an eminent contemporaryneurophysiologist, found that the human mind continued to work in spite of the brain’s reduced activity under anesthesia. Brain waves were nearly absent while the mind was just as active as in the waking state. The only difference was in the content of theconscious experience. Following Penfield’s work, other researchers have reportedawareness in comatose patients (Hunt, 1995) and there is a growing body of evidencewhich suggests that reduced cortical arousal while maintaining conscious awareness ispossible (Fischer, 1971;West 1980; Delmonte, 1984; Goleman 1988; Jevning, Wallace,& Beidenbach, 1992; Wallace, 1986; Mavromatis, 1991). These states are variouslyreferred to as meditative, trance, altered, hypnogogic, hypnotic, and twilight-learningstates (Budzynski, 1986). Broadly defined, the various forms of altered states rest on themaintenance of conscious awareness in a physiologically reduced state of arousalmarked by parasympathetic dominance (Mavromatis, 1991). Recent physiologicalstudies of highly hypnotizable subjects and adept meditators indicate that maintainingawareness with reduced cortical arousal is indeed possible in selected individuals as anatural ability or as an acquired skill (Sabourin, Cutcomb, Crawford, & Pribram, 1993).More and more scientists are expressing doubts about the neurologists’ brain-mindmodel because it fails to answer so many questions about our ordinary experiences, aswell as evading our mystical and spiritual ones. The scientific evidence supporting thephenomenon of remote viewing alone is sufficient to show that mind-consciousness isnot a local phenomenon (McMoneagle, 1993).If mind-consciousness is not the brain, why then does science relate states of consciousness and mental functioning to brain-wave frequencies? And how is it thataudio with embedded binaural beats alters brain waves? The first question can beanswered in terms of instrumentation. There is no objective way to measure mind or consciousness with an instrument. Mind-consciousness appears to be a fieldphenomenon which interfaces with the body and the neurological structures of the brain(Hunt, 1995). One cannot measure this field directly with current instrumentation. On theother hand, the electrical potentials of brain waves can be measured and easilyquantified. Contemporary science likes things that can be measured and quantified. Theproblem here lies in oversimplification of the observations. EEG patterns measured onthe cortex are the result of electroneurological activity of the brain. But the brain’selectroneurological activity is not mind-consciousness. EEG measurements then areonly an indirect means of assessing the mind-consciousness interface with theneurological structures of the brain. As crude as this may seem, the EEG has been areliable way for researchers to estimate states of consciousness based on the relativeproportions of EEG frequencies. Stated another way, certain EEG patterns have beenhistorically associated with specific states of consciousness. It is reasonable to assume,given the current EEG literature, that if a specific EEG pattern emerges it is probablyaccompanied by a particular state of consciousness.As to the second question raised in the above paragraph, audio with embedded binauralbeats alters the electrochemical environment of the brain. This allows mind-consciousness to have different experiences. When the brain is entrained to lower frequencies and awareness is maintained, a unique state of consciousness emerges.This state is often referred to as hypnogogia "mind awake/body asleep." Slightly higher-frequency entrainment can lead to hyper suggestive states of consciousness. Stillhigher-frequency EEG states are associated with alert and focused mental activityneeded for the optimal performance of many tasks. Perceived reality changes dependingon the state of consciousness of the perceiver (Tart, 1975). Some states of consciousness provide limited views of reality, while others provide an expandedawareness of reality. For the most part, states of consciousness change in response to the ever-changing internal environment and surrounding stimulation. For example, statesof consciousness are subject to influences like drugs and circadian and ultradianrhythms (Rossi, 1986; Shannahoff-Khalsa, 1991; Webb & Dube, 1981). Specific states of consciousness can also be learned as adaptive behaviors to demanding circumstances(Green and Green, 1986)
Synchronized brain waves

Synchronized brain waves have long been associated with meditative and hypnogogicstates, and audio with embedded binaural beats has the ability to induce and improvesuch states of consciousness. The reason for this is physiological. Each ear is"hardwired" (so to speak) to both hemispheres of the brain (Rosenzweig, 1961). Eachhemisphere has its own olivary nucleus (sound-processing center) which receivessignals from each ear. In keeping with this physiological structure, when a binaural beatis perceived there are actually two standing waves of equal amplitude and frequencypresent, one in each hemisphere. So, there are two separate standing waves entrainingportions of each hemisphere to the same frequency. The binaural beats appear tocontribute to the hemispheric synchronization evidenced in meditative and hypnogogicstates of consciousness. Brain function is also enhanced through the increase of cross-collosal communication between the left and right hemispheres of the brain.
Resetting Your Brains Sodium/Potassium Ratio In Theta
Your brain cells reset their sodium & potassium ratios when the brain is in Theta state.The sodium & potassium levels are involved in osmosis which is the chemical processthat transports chemicals into and out of your brain cells. After an extended period in theBeta state the ratio between potassium and sodium is out of balance. This the maincause of what is known as "mental fatigue". A brief period in Theta (about 5 - 15min) canrestore the ratio to normal resulting in mental refreshment.

What you Will Need

  • Stereo Headphones

  • A Program to Generate Binaural Frequencies
    (I use a program called Brainwave Generator),it can be downloaded here - (This file comes with everypreset ever Uploaded onto their site, you will need a crack to make it Full Version, andRegistered to you, you can change the name to yours, simply by opening the "Register"file on Notepad, and changing the name, then saving it. Here is the Crack file -
    TIP: If you arent sure which preset to try once the program is installed, a really good oneto try is "Feeling of unity with everything" this one is very relaxing, it makes you feel clear headedafterwards, and it Reduces the amount of sleep that you need, I use it everyday

    A Nature Sound Generator
    (This is Optional of course, but does make the experience moreenjoyable ( I use Natura Sound Therapy 3, it can be downloaded here - is the Serial Number for the program - URKL-W3K8-O2L5-L2N8

    Another great Nature Sound Generator Program
    is "Atmosphere Deluxe 6.0" and it can bedownloaded here - the Crack Here -

    If your looking for a great way to play White, Pink, or Brown Noise, while listening toBinaural Beats, check out     
That's It!

Dr. Jeffrey Thompson - Brainwave Suite

A leader in the scientific field of sound healing, Dr. Jeffrey Thompson worked with hundreds of patients in his sound laboratory, exploring and documenting the balancing, healing, and transformative powers of sound and music. Dr. Thompson teaches Ph.D. and master's degree courses at the California Institute for Human Science in Encinitas, California. He has produced over 40 recordings used by physicians and psychotherapists internationally. His music has been the central meditative sound piece for conferences with Louise Hay, Dr. Bernie Seigel, and Dr. Deepak Chopra.
BRAINWAVE SUITE is a brainwave entrainment resource from Dr. Jeffery Thompson, which gives listeners the tools to modify their state of mind. Each of the four discs in this set feature a series imperceptible pulses that blend with light music and nature sounds to direct the flow of the listener's brainwaves. The four discs cover alpha, theta, alpha-theta and delta waves respectively. ALPHA can be used for problem solving, concentration or any activity that requires alertness. THETA promotes artistic qualities and creativity, making it ideal for allowing original ideas to flow. ALPHA-THETA stimulates the emotions and aids in effective communication. DELTA will help the listener delve into a deep cleaning night of sleep. Each program is further divided into two twenty-minute parts; the first incorporating lower ranges of the frequency, while the second covers the upper ranges.

Jonathan Goldman - Holy Harmony ( FLAC, 341mb)

Holy Harmony contains two never before released Sacred Sound (Solfeggio) Tuning Forks of the complete healing codes of the Bible combined with the chant of YHSHV (Yod Hey Shin Vav Hey), an ancient Name of the Christ. These 9 tuning forks are said to be the Divine frequencies of creation. Some believe the sounding of them is said to fulfill certain Biblical prophecies. Others believe these frequencies have extraordinary healing and transformational properties. The YHSVH Chant is a powerful word of prayer, or a mantra, that is composed of specific letters of the Hebrew alphabet that create a sacred name for the Christ. The Chant can be used for protection, for clearing, and to resonate with the Christ energy. As the Healing Code Tuning Forks sound together with Jonathan Goldman and Sarah Benson’s beautiful and rich choral chanting, they create an extremely powerful , yet deeply calming sonic environment. The combination of the Tuning Forks with the YHSVH Chant is great for relaxation and meditation. These sounds may also be extremely healing and transformational.

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